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  1. The Last Mughal
  2. Return of a King
  3. Nine Lives: In Search of the Sacred in Modern India
  4. Nine Lives: In Search of the Sacred in Modern India - PDF Free Download

byDalrymple William. Topics Allama India Item riewenzheiliman.mlbutor. author: Dalrymple William riewenzheiliman.mlpe: application/pdf. The book, Dalrymple's sixth, and his second to reflect his long love affair with the city of Delhi, won praise for its use of byWilliam Dalrymple. [ William Dalrymple] Return Of A King The Battle F(Book Topics Return of a King: The Battle for Afghanistan. Collectionopensource.

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William Dalrymple Pdf

Read The Last Mughal PDF - The Fall of a Dynasty by William Dalrymple Knopf | On a hazy November afternoon in Rangoon, Home · The Last Mughal: The Fall of a Dynasty: Delhi, Author: William Dalrymple | maps and illustrations by Olivia Fraser. downloads Views. Author: William Dalrymple. downloads Views KB Size Report Nine Lives of William Shakespeare. Read more · Dewey's Nine Lives · Read more.

Travel writing is usually a record of the experiences of travelers in some new places and environments. It includes striking and powerful descriptions, illustrations of artworks and graphics, historical background, and conceivably maps and diagrams. It occupies an equal status with other genres like romance, action adventure, fantasy, mystery, detective fiction etc. Carl Thompson, in his Travel Writing , suggests that: "To travel is to make a journey, a movement through space. All journeys are in this way a confrontation with, or more optimistically a negotiation of, what is sometimes termed alterity. Or, more precisely, since there are no foreign peoples with whom we do not share a common humanity, and probably no environment on the planet for which we do not have some sort of prior reference point, all travel requires us to negotiate a complex and sometimes unsettling interplay between alterity and identity, difference and similarity. The key words are journey, a movement in space which can lead to discovery, alterity, identity, difference, similarity or complexity of the discovery to follow the journey. Then, if travel is "the negotiation between self and other brought about by movement in space" Thompson, 9 , then "all travel writing is at some level a record or product of this encounter, and of the negotiation between similarity and difference that is entailed. It is not very easy to draw a clear boundary between literary travel writing and non-literary writing.

Both travelers arrive in Masyaf in summertime when cotton is ripening. Because of this, he invites Dalrymple and Laura to his home for night stay. Eastern part of world still has the traditional family culture of sitting together and eating but with nuclear family system, we see such customs fading in West, he has also mentioned few Muslim and Christian scholars who have described splendor of Masyaf in their times.

He encounters a native who has been migrating between England, France and Syria because of unstable socio, economic situation of Middle East. Aleppo has been the biggest city of the Ottoman Empire after Constantinople and Cairo. Aleppo is one of the oldest ceaselessly settled cities in the world. It has been inhabited since perhaps as early as the 6th millennium BC. Situation of Aleppo is bit better and different from Latakia and Masyaf.

Like other parts of Middle East, Aleppo too has seen rise and fall of all beliefs. Instead of finding Arab women and belly dancers, author introduces us with Armenian singer and music. They are bustards, evil men. They kill, rob money. Rape women. Syrian—Turkish relations officially do not exist.

Turkey shares its longest common border with Syria. Syrian civil war is also an important strain to liaison between the two countries, leading to the deferment of diplomatic contact.

William Dalrymple continues his journey with his companion Laura and moves to Turkey in this chapter. Both the travelers explore certain places in Turkey which includes Ayas, a district of Ankara Province in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey, Sis, the city to the south of the current Turkish town of Kozan, Mersin, a city and a port on the Mediterranean coast of southern Turkey and Sivas, a city in central Turkey.

The main things noted and discussed by Dalrymple about these places are culture which includes their foods, dresses and festivals, the important historical buildings with special reference to their architecture and social and moral codes related to their behavior and manners.

At several places, the writer can be seen mocking Islam and Muslims as well. These words create a sort of gothic imagery which shows how dreadful the image of Turks is in the west. The curiosity of the student reflected through his questions does not reveal that all Turks are alike but the statement given by writer gives a general view that all Turks are curious.

Turks ask the question to others to just show that how much they love and are concerned about their country. Detailed description of Turkish men and women is given by writer.

He has not only focused on their dresses but their physical features also. Their men are almost all handsome with dark, supple skin and strong features: good bones, sharp eyes and tall, masculine bodies. Very few are beautiful. Secondly, the way he describes women seems very inhuman. The 13 I n X a n a d u ; A Q u e s t food items, writer gains a chance to taste in Turkey mainly include chai which shows how much Turkish are fond of chai. Another important thing writer mentions about chai is that in Turkey, it is served in small glasses instead of cups.

Other food items includes pilau rice and shorba soup. It shows the cultural differences between English and Turkish people in terms of the food they eat. In cultural festivals, the Agriculture day celebrations at Sivas are discussed by the writer. The celebrations show that at gatherings, men and women sit separately. Women were carrying piles of firewood towards their houses, while the men began solemnly to disembowel their tractors.

The description portrays a typical image of village life which is very and close to nature and unfortunately in west there are no such places. Historical buildings are a great asset for Turkey. Some of the historical places visited and mentioned by the writer in his travelogue are Bayazit and Sulemaniye mosques in Istanbul, Ulu Jami which is the oldest mosque in Sivas, Gok Medresse and the Ottoman mosque.

The two buildings about which a detailed description is given are Ulu Jami and Gok Medresse. He says that architecture and especially the inner structure of both buildings are same. Only the arches made inside the Ulu Jami are like those present in the church. Otherwise, the inner structure of mosque and church is completely different. Making generalizations on the basis of just one common thing is not at all acceptable. He states that Celtic decorative work is used in its architecture which was also used by the western artists at the time of Anglo Saxon Age.

It shows that how westerns think low of eastern culture. This type of attitude of writer shows that how he does not want to recognize Turkish architecture as something unique and different. Every society has some positive and negative characteristics but usually when western writers describe east they ignore the positive things and focus more on the negative aspects.

In this travelogue, writer can be seen making fun of Turkish society and mentality of its people. He mocks the transport system of Turkey when he had to wait for a long time for bus and train. He continuously says that he has heard that in Turkey train and buses are always at time. His tone seems quite sarcastic while saying this and he also mocks the bus driver who starts to wash his bus on every stop it stops and the conductor who comes on each stop to offer passengers some biscuits. This can be a custom in their society and according to them it comes under the category of good manners so writer has no right to judge or criticize these people just because he himself thinks washing the bus on each stop as funny and disturbing the sleeping passengers at every stop just to give biscuits as something ill mannered.

Writer also mentions some of the policemen who are on duty at railway station with whom he plays cards while waiting for the train. He writes how they win each game from him by cheating. He criticizes Turkish men on duty as morally corrupt people.

Here also he is doing generalization by saying that on duty all Turkish men are corrupt because if he has seen few people involved in corruption it does not mean that all the country will be like this. Every society has its own flaws but the writer portrays the Turkish society in such a mocking way as if his own society is flawless.

The only true picture of Turkish society is presented by the writer when he narrates his meeting with a German girl who spends half of her year in Turkey and half in Germany.

The writer asks her that which country she prefers more whether Turkey or Germany, she gives an account of life in both the countries which reveal the social and moral values of two different societies. We have to go a long way for water and sometimes we are hungrybut here people are more concerned with each other. Here people smile more. They are happier. I can go to any house. I can spend the night; sleep 15 I n X a n a d u ; A Q u e s t here and there will be no scandal.

The same German girl is asked several questions related to Islam and Muslims by Dalrymple. He inquires about the inferior status of women and discrimination on the basis of gender in Islam.

It shows how the characteristics of a particular society are attached with Islam which is just generalization that customs of one Muslim country are misunderstood as teachings of Islam. At few places in the travelogue, the writer has been making fun of Azaan and Recitation of Holy Quran.

Writer has shown baseness and misrepresented Turkish people and culture at several places but has also shown true picture of Turkey especially when he quotes any native.

In England the vices in fashion are whoring and drinking, in Turkey sodomy and smoking, we prefer a girl and a bottle, they a pipe and a phatic. In next chapter, the writer leaves for Iran. The main thing about Iran which is satirized by the writer is the distinction or rather discrimination on the basis of Shia and Sunni sects.

Dalrymple notices most of the people in Iran are wearing chador. What he finds more striking and humorous is that even the 16 I n X a n a d u ; A Q u e s t people with beards are wearing chador because according to him chador is something associated with females and beard with males so the combination of both is quite ridiculous for him.

As his last visited country was Turkey, so when he enters Iran he starts comparing these nations, their people and their cultures. Like in chapters five and six we found some cultural misrepresentations in this travelogue about Afghan people and their appearances. In these chapters three countries are discussed Iran, Pakistan and India.

Given a few peg legs, eye patches and macaws they could have happily stood in as extras for Treasure Island or The Pirates of Penzance. Here mock on the physical appearances of Afghan people is obvious because the writer uses the word piratical looking which is unfair.

Not everybody seems piratical. Afghan people are considered very beautiful people. The cultural dressing of Afghan people is criticized and appearances as well.

He reminded me of woodcuts of young Hercules in the ancient Latin text books at school. The appearances of Afghan people is exaggerated and showed beast like figures. Again, Afghan people are shown such beings that do not follow any manners and they are represented as harsh people.

The writer gave us the harsh image of Farsi because it is spoken by Afghans but in fact Farsi is the sweet language. In this chapter, we can find the typical image of brown people especially Afghan people represented by white people that they are inhumane.

You might also like: CITY OF DJINNS PDF

Afghans are animals. I would wait until tomorrow. Quite apart from the smell, those barbarians are more than likely to rob you of everything you possess. People were having hatred for their own country which has been penned by the writer very well because the writer himself is white man and he quoted Iranian man and his hatred for Iran. Our image in their minds is barbaric. I have a little surgery in the desert south of Quetta. The people are Baluchis and always they kill each other.

To be a surgeon in the desert south of Quetta is a terrible thing. We Pakistanis are having hatred for our neighboring country India. If few people watch their movies or listen songs does not develop love for India and cannot remove hatred for the country.

The superiority complex of white men is shown here. They even degrade and disrespect the food. Westernization in Pakistan is appreciated by the writer but he represents it in a way that is degrading like we the natives do not appreciates the values and norms of our culture.

If we live abroad or study in abroad that does not cut our roots. We are still from where we belong. Here is the example of Pakistani native Mozaffar who studied from Cambridge. But, my dear, you are absolutely filthy. The image of Pathan women is also misrepresented.

In this book their image is portrayed cruel but in fact Pathan women are oppressed and are bound to obey males. They respect male dominancy.

The Pathan women. They are more wicked even than the men. William Dalrymple continues his journey to Russia in this chapter. The main things noted and discussed by Dalrymple about this place are culture which includes even infrastructural facilities.

The rooms have been dived up into dormitories, the stables turned into rows of stinking squatter loops, the garden left to run riot. She was unusual among other women of Russia. She wore no chadder and had the bearing of a person of some power and importance.

The Last Mughal

Then we come across about prayer area. Beautiful description is there. The main prayer area is not a basilica but an open-fronted pavilion in the manner of the chihil sutan in Isfahan. All teaching was in mandarin, and the uigur students were taught to despite their tongue and Islamic culture. The most exciting discovery according to writer was there were still Nestorian Christians in kashgar.

Last chapter of this travelogue has no such misrepresentations like previous ones have. This journey is towards China. Before reaching there he has presupposed many things about that place. Much has been written on the supposed discomforts of Chinese trains. They are meant to be overcrowded, noisy and filthy, their occupants displaying all the worst Chinese vices: boorishness, arrogance and insensitivity. There were many things that we liked about Peking: the grinning dentists caressing their pliers outside the surgeries, the delicate boys in the barber shops, the old women hobbling past on unbound feet, the lines of plane trees and the silver poplars, the bird cages hanging from the street lamps.

Chinese pride in their civilization and Nationalism has been beautifully explained by the writer. There are many episodes that could be mentioned to illustrate the way in which geography and history inter-relate in this work. The episode begins with the confident assertion that [t]he Red Fort is to Delhi what the Colosseum is to Rome or the Acropolis is to Athens: it is the single most famous monument in the city.

Macfarlane is perhaps best known for The Old Ways Macfarlane [] , the third and final book in a loose trilogy of works about landscape and the imagination. There is, however, greater sympathy in evidence, not least because Dalrymple and his wife make an effort to learn Hindi. This brief episode certainly casts the British non-native speakers in the best possible light.

You are speaking Hindi! There may be few places left in the world that remain undocumented, and little factual information that a basic internet search cannot reveal, but what makes the difference as far as much travel writing is concerned is no longer the difficulty of the journey itself so much as the intensity of the gazing.

Return of a King

There is, however, a definite turn towards life writing in his work, which may be traced to the publication of Nine Lives in This shift in empha- sis results in a change in literary form, with a movement away from the first-person narrative of the travelogue to something closer to reportage, in which much of the time the characters are apparently allowed to speak for themselves. On the one hand, we have the illiterate singer of a popular Rajasthani epic, delivered in Mewari, with whom Dalrymple travels to hear him perform in his home village; on the other, a narrator who is at pains to point out that he first came to hear about the phenomenon of oral Indian epics while staying at a fort outside Jodhpur where Bruce Chatwin had written The Songlines ibid.

The differences in register should also theoretically be compounded by linguistic issues. It is likely that Mohan and his wife Batasi, as well as most of the other characters given a voice in the story, were non-English speakers.

Youngs , But the narrato- rial presence is clear from a couple of instances where English explana- tions for such terms are included. The main narrative is the jour- ney which Dalrymple makes with Mohan and his wife to their village of Pabusar.

Indeed, it is not immediately obvious where one historical episode ends and the other begins. This is not to suggest that Dalrymple has anything other than profound respect and admiration for his subjects. Differences, however, there still are.

In City of Djinns, for example, the historical dimension is presented as a consequence of the geographical, but is no less an important part of the work for this reason. The Last Mughal, by contrast, would initially appear to be most easily categorized as either life writing or narrative history, or possibly both. Yet in the intro- duction the author states clearly that [a]lthough Bahadur Shah II, the last Mughal, is a central figure in this book, it is not a biography of Zafar so much as a portrait of the Delhi he personified, a narrative of the last days of the Mughal capital and its final destruction in the catastrophe of In this sense the closest counterpart to The Last Mughal would be City of Djinns, not the other two narrative history volumes, and there is indeed substantial continuity between the two works.

This is especially marked in a series of passages quoted almost verbatim. With respect to the latter, in the most recent work in particular we find various chapters with proleptic endings, a simple enough technique which serves to encourage the reader to keep turning the pages. What makes his research original is the fact that his sources are unpublished, either because they have been undiscovered or have not yet been translated.

His earliest work and his travel writing in particular, we have noted, served to introduce foreign realities to a domestic readership. His historical writ- ing, by contrast, focuses more on international relations, showing how East and West have interacted successfully and unsuccessfully over the centuries, with a view to promoting those attitudes, stances and policies which have facilitated harmonious coexistence, and counteracting those which assume that a clash of civilizations is inevitable.

With the exception of an essay published in The New York Review of Books in Dalrymple b , which is largely an overview, the author mostly sidesteps the political debate in Indian historiography between Hindu nationalist and non-Hindu readings. Corinne Fowler, in her account of travel writing, journalism and British ideas on Afghanistan, 16 Dalrymple describes on p. The reading of history advocated by this work, though, is uncompli- catedly circular: the past is to be read, according to Dalrymple, as a simple allegory of the present, its lessons to be learnt in order to prevent the same mistakes from being repeated.

The parallels between historical precedent and current experience are spelt out even more clearly in the essay he deliv- ered to the Brookings Institute on relations between India, Pakistan and Afghanistan in , on which he subsequently briefed the White House personally Dalrymple b.

This trans- formation is mirrored by the change in his narrative technique. Dalrym- ple, as he himself has said, has sought increasingly to move away from the first-person narrator as the main protagonist of his works. This choice, indeed, has been one of the main factors in his progression from travel and place writing to life writing and ultimately narrative history.

The shift towards ostensibly more objective forms of writing, allied to the discovery of what we might term a sense of mission in seeking to advocate peace- ful and harmonious interaction between East and West, have combined to help Dalrymple not to overindulge in the kinds of elitism which have tended to characterize so much English-language travel writing including his own to begin with.

It is this moral imperative which accounts for his appeal to, and success with, the mass market, and explains why his services as guest lecturer should be in demand from tour companies looking to entertain their customers by educating them. In this sense we may say that he himself is the main protagonist of his writings, and that despite everything, the first- person narrative form proves to be even more resilient than might have been anticipated.

Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Boorstin, Daniel. Reprint, New York: Vintage. Byron, Robert. The Road to Oxiana. Reprint, London: Penguin. Chatwin, Bruce. London: Penguin. Cronin, Michael. Across the Lines: Travel Language Translation. Cork: Cork University Press. Dalrymple, William. In Xanadu: A Quest. London: Collins. City of Djinns: A Year in Delhi. London: HarperCollins.

Nine Lives: In Search of the Sacred in Modern India

From the Holy Mountain. Reprint, London: Fla- mingo. London: Harper Perennial. Common Knowledge 11 3 : London: Bloomsbury.

Nine Lives: In Search of the Sacred in Modern India - PDF Free Download

The Telegraph, October 7. The Guardian, September Return of a King: The Battle for Afghanistan. Fowler, Corinne. Amsterdam - New York: Rodopi.